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|Introduction||Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure. It is part of the renin-angiotensin system, which is a major target for drugs that lower blood pressure. Angiotensin also stimulates the release of aldosterone, another hormone, from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone promotes sodium retention in the distal nephron, in the kidney, which also drives blood pressure up. Angiotensin is an oligopeptide and is a hormone and a powerful dipsogen. It is derived from the precursor molecule angiotensinogen, a serum globulin produced in the liver. It plays an important role in the renin-angiotensin system. Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II (AII) through removal of two C-terminal residues by the enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), primarily through ACE within the lung (but also present in endothelial cells and kidney epithelial cells). ACE found in other tissues of the body has no physiological role (ACE has a high density in the lung, but activation here promotes no vasoconstriction, angiotensin II is below physiological levels of action). Angiotensin II acts as an endocrine, autocrine/paracrine, and intracrine hormone.|
|Target||Angiotensin II (Ang II)|
|Recommended dilutions||Optimal dilutions/concentrations should be determined by the end user.|
|Storage||Shipped at 4 °C. Upon receipt, store the kit according to the storage instruction in the kit's manual.|
|Validity||The validity for this kit is 6 months.|
|Stability||The stability of the kit is determined by the rate of activity loss. The loss rate is less than 5% within the expiration date under appropriate storage conditions. To minimize performance fluctuations, operation procedures and lab conditions should be strictly controlled. It is also strongly suggested that the whole assay is performed by the same user throughout.|
|UniProt Primary AC||P01019 (UniProt, ExPASy)|
|UniProt Secondary AC||Q16358, Q16359, Q96F91|
|UniProt Entry Name||ANGT_HUMAN|
|Test Range||31.2 pg/ml - 2000 pg/ml|
|Sample Type||Serum, plasma and other biological fluids.|
|Assay Principle||This kit is based on competitive enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay technology. An antigen is pre-coated onto a 96-well plate. Standards, test samples, and biotin-conjugated reagent are added to the wells and incubated. A competitive inhibition reaction takes place between the the pre-coated Ang II and the Ang II in the sample with the biotin-labelled antibody. The HRP-conjugated reagent is then added, and the whole plate is incubated. Unbound conjugates are removed using wash buffer at each stage. TMB substrate is used to quantify the HRP enzymatic reaction. After TMB substrate is added, only wells that contain sufficient Ang II will produce a blue coloured product, which then changes to yellow after adding the acidic stop solution. The intensity of the color yellow is inversely proportional to the Ang II amount bound on the plate. The OD is measured spectrophotometrically at 450 nm in a microplate reader, from which the concentration of Ang II can be calculated.|
|Kit Components||The kit components listed are for reference only. The product manual may differ slightly. The product should be used as stated on the product manual included and delivered together with the product.
|Material Required But Not Provided||
|Reagent Preparation||This procedure is provided for reference only. The product manual may differ slightly. The product should be used as stated on the product manual included and delivered together with the product.
|Assay Procedure||This procedure is provided for reference only. The product manual may differ slightly. The product should be used as stated on the product manual included and delivered together with the product.
|Protocol||This procedure is provided for reference only. The product manual may differ slightly. The product should be used as stated on the product manual included and delivered together with the product.
|Results Calculation||This assay is competitive, therefore there is an inverse correlation between Ang II concentration in the sample and the absorbance measured. Create a graph with the log of the standard concentration (y-axis) and average absorbance measured (x-axis). Apply a best fit trendline through the standard points. The Ang II concentration of the samples can be interpolated from the standard curve.|
|Assay Precision||Intra-assay Precision (Precision within an assay): 3 samples with low, medium and high levels of Angiotensin II (Ang II) were were tested 20 times on one plate, respectively.
Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, medium and high levels of Angiotensin II (Ang II) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate.
CV (%) = (Standard Deviation / mean) × 100
|Availability||Shipped within 5-12 working days.|
|Note||This product is for research use only. The range and sensitivity is subject to change. Please contact us for the latest product information. For accurate results, sample concentrations must be diluted to mid-range of the kit. If you require a specific range, please contact us in advance or write your request in your order comments. Please note that our ELISA and CLIA kits are optimised for detection of native samples, rather than recombinant proteins. We are unable to guarantee detection of recombinant proteins, as they may have different sequences or tertiary structures to the native protein.|
|Plate coated with||Antigen|